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Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2015 May 1;20(3):e278-83.

Effects of glucosamine-chondroitin combination on synovial fluid IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and PGE2 levels in internal derangements of temporomandibular joint.

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Tayfur Sokmen Kampusu, 31100 Antakya, Hatay, Turkey,



The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of glucosamine-chondroitin sulphate combination on internal derangements of temporomandibular joint in clinical and biochemical manners.


This randomized clinical study included 31 cases reporting joint tenderness, in which disc displacement was detected on MR imaging. In all patients, synovial fluid sampling was performed under local anesthesia. In the study group, the patients were prescribed a combination of 1500 mg glucosamine and 1200 mg chondroitin sulphate, while patients in the control group were only prescribed 50 mg tramadol HCl (twice daily) for pain control. After 8 weeks, synovial fluid sampling was repeated in the same manner. The levels of pain, maximum mouth opening (MMO), synovial fluid IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α and PGE2 measured before and after pharmacological intervention were compared.


The reduction in pain levels was significant in both groups. There was no significant difference between two groups in terms of pain reduction. The improvement in MMO was significant in the study group but it was not in the control group. The MMO improvement was significantly higher in the study group compared to the control group. In the study group, significant decrease was observed in PGE2 level, while the decreases in IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels were not significant. In the control group, no significant decrease was observed in any of the inflammatory cytokines after 8 weeks, moreover IL-1ß and IL-6 levels were increased. Alterations of IL-1ß and IL-6 levels were significant in study group while TNF-α and PGE2 levels were not, compared to control group.


In conclusion, these results might suggest that glucosamine-chondroitin combination significantly increases the MMO and decreases the synovial fluid IL1β and IL6 levels in internal derangements of TMJ compared to tramadol. The modifications of synovial fluid TNF-α and PGE2 levels do not reach statistical significance. This combination also provides efficient pain relief in similar level with tramadol, a narcotic analgesic.

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