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Food Chem Toxicol. 2015 Apr;78:141-6. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2015.01.018. Epub 2015 Feb 7.

Betanin attenuates oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction in kidney of paraquat-treated rat.

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College of Food, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866, China.
College of Life Science and Engineering, Shenyang University, Shenyang 110044, China.
College of Life Science and Engineering, Shenyang University, Shenyang 110044, China. Electronic address:


The effects of natural pigment betanin on oxidative stress and inflammation in kidney of paraquat-treated rat were investigated. Paraquat was injected intraperitoneally into rats to induce renal damage. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: a control group, a paraquat group, and two paraquat groups that were treated with betanin at 25 and 100 mg/kg/d three days before and two days after paraquat administration. Treatment with betanin alleviated the paraquat-incurred acute kidney injury, evidenced by histological improvement, reduced serum and urine markers for kidney injury. Betanin antagonized the paraquat-induced inflammation, indicated by reduced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase, blunted activation of nuclear factor kappa B, and diminished lysosomal protease activities. Betanin also decreased oxidative stress elicited by paraquat. In conclusion, betanin may have a protective effect against paraquat-induced acute kidney damage. The mechanisms of the protection appear to be the inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammation.


COX-2; Herbicide; Lysosomal proteases; Natural pigment; Nuclear factor-κB; iNOS

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