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Curr Med Res Opin. 2015 Apr;31(4):757-65. doi: 10.1185/03007995.2015.1016605. Epub 2015 Feb 23.

Cost and consequences of noncompliance with osteoporosis treatment among women initiating therapy.

Author information

1
Merck & Co. Inc. , Lebanon, NJ , USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The objective was to evaluate compliance with osteoporosis (OP) treatments and determine the fracture and healthcare burden associated with noncompliance.

METHODS:

This retrospective analysis of a US claims database identified women initiating an OP medication from 1 January 2002 to 30 June 2009. Patients were ≥55 years and had ≥1 pharmacy claim for a bisphosphonate or non-bisphosphonate (raloxifene, calcitonin, teriparatide); the index date was the first pharmacy claim. There were three study periods: baseline (12 months pre-index); compliance period (0-12 months post-index); and follow-up period (12-24 months post-index). Medication possession ratio (MPR) was calculated during the compliance period to differentiate two cohorts: compliant (MPR ≥ 80%) and noncompliant (MPR < 80%). Outcomes during follow-up were modeled by logistic regression (presence of fracture), Poisson regression (healthcare utilization incidence rate) and gamma regression (healthcare costs), all adjusted for patient demographic and clinical characteristics.

RESULTS:

Overall, 685,505 women initiating OP therapy were identified and 57,913 (8.4%) met the inclusion criteria: only 23,430 (40.5%) were compliant and 34,483 (59.5%) were noncompliant. Mean age was 64 years. Noncompliance was associated with a 20% higher risk of any fracture (odds ratio: 1.20, 95% CI = 1.07-1.35), a higher incidence rate ratio (IRR) for inpatient utilization (IRR: 1.26, 95% CI = 1.19-1.34) and a lower rate of outpatient utilization (IRR: 0.97, 95% CI = 0.95-0.98). Noncompliant patients had 13% higher medical costs (cost ratio: 1.13, 95% CI = 1.06-1.21) than compliant patients.

LIMITATIONS:

Inclusion in this study required 36 months of continuous healthcare coverage. Thus, the results are primarily applicable to a stable, managed care population and may not be generalizable to other populations.

CONCLUSION:

Noncompliance with OP therapy was associated with a higher risk of fracture, higher all-cause medical costs and a higher frequency of inpatient service utilization. Additional research is needed to identify barriers to compliance with OP therapy.

KEYWORDS:

Adherence; Compliance; Fracture risk; Healthcare costs; Healthcare utilization; Osteoporosis

PMID:
25661017
DOI:
10.1185/03007995.2015.1016605
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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