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J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015 Feb 10;65(5):411-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2014.11.023.

Dose of jogging and long-term mortality: the Copenhagen City Heart Study.

Author information

1
Copenhagen City Heart Study, Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address: peter@schnohr.dk.
2
Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute and University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri.
3
Copenhagen City Heart Study, Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
4
Copenhagen City Heart Study, Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hvidovre Hospital, and Section of Social Medicine, Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
5
Copenhagen City Heart Study, Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Cardiology, Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

People who are physically active have at least a 30% lower risk of death during follow-up compared with those who are inactive. However, the ideal dose of exercise for improving longevity is uncertain.

OBJECTIVES:

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between jogging and long-term, all-cause mortality by focusing specifically on the effects of pace, quantity, and frequency of jogging.

METHODS:

As part of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, 1,098 healthy joggers and 3,950 healthy nonjoggers have been prospectively followed up since 2001. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed with age as the underlying time scale and delayed entry.

RESULTS:

Compared with sedentary nonjoggers, 1 to 2.4 h of jogging per week was associated with the lowest mortality (multivariable hazard ratio [HR]: 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11 to 0.80). The optimal frequency of jogging was 2 to 3 times per week (HR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.15 to 0.69) or ≤1 time per week (HR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.72). The optimal pace was slow (HR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.24 to 1.10) or average (HR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.22 to 0.66). The joggers were divided into light, moderate, and strenuous joggers. The lowest HR for mortality was found in light joggers (HR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.10 to 0.47), followed by moderate joggers (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.32 to 1.38) and strenuous joggers (HR: 1.97; 95% CI: 0.48 to 8.14).

CONCLUSIONS:

The findings suggest a U-shaped association between all-cause mortality and dose of jogging as calibrated by pace, quantity, and frequency of jogging. Light and moderate joggers have lower mortality than sedentary nonjoggers, whereas strenuous joggers have a mortality rate not statistically different from that of the sedentary group.

KEYWORDS:

Copenhagen City Heart Study; all-cause mortality; jogging; physical activity

PMID:
25660917
DOI:
10.1016/j.jacc.2014.11.023
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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