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Zoolog Sci. 2015 Jan;32(1):97-104. doi: 10.2108/zs140175.

Morphological Tools for Describing the Male External Genitalia of Sapajus apella.

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1 Department of Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, University of São Paulo, Av. Orlando Marques de Paiva, 87, Block 17, Superior floor, 05508 270, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.


Sapajus apella is a wild monkey of South America distributed across almost all of Brazil. This species adapts to domesticated life and reproduces easily. The present study describes the macro- and microscopic morphology of male genital organs (penis, penis bone, glans penis, prepuce, bulb of penis, and urethra) of Sapajus apella. Four male monkeys were used in this study. For macroscopic description, the genitals were dissected, examined and photographed. For microscopic analysis, samples were stained by HE and Tricom Masson and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. The penis has a gutter shape with numerous spines on the free part of the penis and glans, and showed cavernous body elements in which mesenchymal cells appear. The glans penis is well developed with a broad crown shape. The prepuce does not cover the free part of the penis. The bulb displays well-developed muscle structure and the membranous urethra is very elongated. These results reveal that Sapajus apella shows specific male genital features, different from other primates.


Sapajus apella; genital organs; monkey; morphology; primates

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