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Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2015 Apr;45(4):385-92. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2014.12.017. Epub 2015 Jan 19.

Augmented renal clearance, low β-lactam concentrations and clinical outcomes in the critically ill: an observational prospective cohort study.

Author information

1
Infection Control Programme, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Rue Gabrielle Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland. Electronic address: angela.huttner@hcuge.ch.
2
Infection Control Programme, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Rue Gabrielle Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.
3
University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Rue Gabrielle Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.
4
Division of Pharmacology, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Rue Gabrielle Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.
5
Division of Critical Care Medicine, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Rue Gabrielle Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.
6
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Rue Gabrielle Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.
7
Division of Infectious Diseases, Geneva University Hospitals and Medical School, Rue Gabrielle Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.

Abstract

Whilst augmented renal clearance (ARC) is associated with reduced β-lactam plasma concentrations, its impact on clinical outcomes is unclear. This single-centre prospective, observational, cohort study included non-pregnant, critically ill patients aged 18-60 years with presumed severe infection treated with imipenem, meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam or cefepime and with creatinine clearance (CL(Cr)) ≥60 mL/min. Peak, intermediate and trough levels of β-lactams were drawn on Days 1-3 and 5. Concentrations were deemed 'subthreshold' if they did not meet EUCAST-defined non-species-related breakpoints. Primary and secondary endpoints were clinical response 28 days after inclusion, and ARC prevalence (CL(Cr)≥130 mL/min) and subthreshold and undetectable concentrations, respectively. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between ARC, antibiotic concentrations and clinical failure. From 2010 to 2013, 100 patients were enrolled (mean age, 45 years; median CL(Cr) at inclusion, 144.1 mL/min). ARC was present in 64 (64%) of the patients. Most patients received imipenem/cilastatin (54%). Moreover, 86% and 27% of patients had at least one subthreshold or undetectable trough level, respectively. Among imipenem and piperacillin trough levels, 77% and 61% were subthreshold, respectively, but intermediate levels of both antibiotics were largely above threshold. ARC strongly predicted undetectable trough concentrations (OR=3.3, 95% CI 1.11-9.94). A link between ARC and clinical failure (18/98; 18%) was not observed. ARC and subthreshold β-lactam antibiotic concentrations were widespread but were not associated with clinical failure. Larger studies are necessary to determine whether standard dosing regimens in the presence of ARC impact negatively on clinical outcome and antibiotic resistance.

KEYWORDS:

Antibacterial agents; Augmented renal clearance; Carbapenems; Critically ill; Therapeutic drug monitoring; β-Lactam antibiotics

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