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Planta Med. 2015 Feb;81(3):215-21. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1396204. Epub 2015 Feb 5.

Downregulation of microglial activation by achillolide A.

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Department of Food Quality and Safety, Volcani Center, Agricultural Research Organization, Bet Dagan, Israel.
School of Chemistry, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Israel.
Dead Sea & Arava Science Center and Regenerative Medicine & Stem Cell Research Center, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheba, Israel.


Chronic inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases. During the neuroinflammatory process, microglial cells release neurotoxic and proinflammatory mediators. In the present study, using activity-guided fractionation, we have purified an anti-inflammatory compound determined by spectroscopic methods to be a sesquiterpene lactone named achillolide A from Achillea fragrantissima (Forsk.) Sch. Bip. In primary cultures of lipopolysaccharide-activated microglial cells, achillolide A inhibited the lipopolysaccharide-induced levels of proinflammatory and toxic mediators including glutamate, nitric oxide, matrix metalloproteinase-9, cyclooxygenase-2, induced nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Achillolide A also exhibited an antioxidant capacity, as was shown in a cell free system as well as by its ability to reduce intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in microglial cells. Thus, achillolide A might have therapeutic potential for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and deserves further studies.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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