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Int J Mol Sci. 2015 Feb 3;16(2):3251-66. doi: 10.3390/ijms16023251.

Neighboring gene regulation by antisense long non-coding RNAs.

Author information

1
Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge 14183, Sweden. victoria.villegas@urosario.edu.co.
2
Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics & Doctoral Program in Biomedical Sciences, Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá 11001000, Colombia. victoria.villegas@urosario.edu.co.
3
Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge 14183, Sweden. peter.zaphiropoulos@ki.se.

Abstract

Antisense transcription, considered until recently as transcriptional noise, is a very common phenomenon in human and eukaryotic transcriptomes, operating in two ways based on whether the antisense RNA acts in cis or in trans. This process can generate long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), one of the most diverse classes of cellular transcripts, which have demonstrated multifunctional roles in fundamental biological processes, including embryonic pluripotency, differentiation and development. Antisense lncRNAs have been shown to control nearly every level of gene regulation--pretranscriptional, transcriptional and posttranscriptional--through DNA-RNA, RNA-RNA or protein-RNA interactions. This review is centered on functional studies of antisense lncRNA-mediated regulation of neighboring gene expression. Specifically, it addresses how these transcripts interact with other biological molecules, nucleic acids and proteins, to regulate gene expression through chromatin remodeling at the pretranscriptional level and modulation of transcriptional and post-transcriptional processes by altering the sense mRNA structure or the cellular compartmental distribution, either in the nucleus or the cytoplasm.

PMID:
25654223
PMCID:
PMC4346893
DOI:
10.3390/ijms16023251
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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