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Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:434683. doi: 10.1155/2015/434683. Epub 2015 Jan 14.

Balance dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

Author information

1
Neurology and Neurophysiopathology, Sandro Pertini Hospital, Via Monti Tiburtini 385, 00157 Rome, Italy.
2
Institute of Neurology, Department of Neurosciences, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health (DiNOGMI), Largo Daneo 3, University of Genova, 16132 Genova, Italy.
3
Academic Neurology Unit, A. Fiorini Hospital and Department of Medical-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Polo Pontino, Via Firenze, 04019 Terracina, Italy.
4
Neurosurgery Unit, Policlinico Umberto I, Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Via del Policlinico, 00161 Roma, Italy.
5
Neurology Unit, Policlinico Umberto I, Department of Neurology and Otolaryngology, Sapienza University of Rome, Via dell'Università 30, 00185 Roma, Italy.
6
Academic Neurorehabilitation Unit, ICOT and Department of Medical-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Polo Pontino, Via F. Faggiana 34, 04100 Latina, Italy ; INM Neuromed IRCCS, Via Atinense 18, 86077 Pozzilli, Italy.

Abstract

Stability and mobility in functional motor activities depend on a precise regulation of phasic and tonic muscular activity that is carried out automatically, without conscious awareness. The sensorimotor control of posture involves a complex integration of multisensory inputs that results in a final motor adjustment process. All or some of the components of this system may be dysfunctional in Parkinsonian patients, rendering postural instability one of the most disabling features of Parkinson's disease (PD). Balance control is critical for moving safely in and adapting to the environment. PD induces a multilevel impairment of this function, therefore worsening the patients' physical and psychosocial disability. In this review, we describe the complex ways in which PD impairs posture and balance, collecting and reviewing the available experimental evidence.

PMID:
25654100
PMCID:
PMC4310258
DOI:
10.1155/2015/434683
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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