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J Vis Exp. 2015 Jan 10;(95):52351. doi: 10.3791/52351.

Methods to evaluate cytotoxicity and immunosuppression of combustible tobacco product preparations.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences; sarimill@wakehealth.edu.
2
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences.
3
R&D Department, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company.

Abstract

Among other pathophysiological changes, chronic exposure to cigarette smoke causes inflammation and immune suppression, which have been linked to increased susceptibility of smokers to microbial infections and tumor incidence. Ex vivo suppression of receptor-mediated immune responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) treated with smoke constituents is an attractive approach to study mechanisms and evaluate the likely long-term effects of exposure to tobacco products. Here, we optimized methods to perform ex vivo assays using PBMCs stimulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide, a Toll-like receptor-4 ligand. The effects of whole smoke-conditioned medium (WS-CM), a combustible tobacco product preparation (TPP), and nicotine were investigated on cytokine secretion and target cell killing by PBMCs in the ex vivo assays. We show that secreted cytokines IFN-γ, TNF, IL-10, IL-6, and IL-8 and intracellular cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, and MIP-1α were suppressed in WS-CM-exposed PBMCs. The cytolytic function of effector PBMCs, as determined by a K562 target cell killing assay was also reduced by exposure to WS-CM; nicotine was minimally effective in these assays. In summary, we present a set of improved assays to evaluate the effects of TPPs in ex vivo assays, and these methods could be readily adapted for testing other products of interest.

PMID:
25650834
PMCID:
PMC4354515
DOI:
10.3791/52351
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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