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Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2015 Mar;16(3):178-89. doi: 10.1038/nrm3941. Epub 2015 Feb 4.

Histone exchange, chromatin structure and the regulation of transcription.

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1
Stowers Institute for Medical Research, 1000 East 50th Street, Kansas City, Missouri 64110, USA.

Abstract

The packaging of DNA into strings of nucleosomes is one of the features that allows eukaryotic cells to tightly regulate gene expression. The ordered disassembly of nucleosomes permits RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to access the DNA, whereas nucleosomal reassembly impedes access, thus preventing transcription and mRNA synthesis. Chromatin modifications, chromatin remodellers, histone chaperones and histone variants regulate nucleosomal dynamics during transcription. Disregulation of nucleosome dynamics results in aberrant transcription initiation, producing non-coding RNAs. Ongoing research is elucidating the molecular mechanisms that regulate chromatin structure during transcription by preventing histone exchange, thereby limiting non-coding RNA expression.

PMID:
25650798
DOI:
10.1038/nrm3941
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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