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Case Rep Hematol. 2015;2015:949265. doi: 10.1155/2015/949265. Epub 2015 Jan 11.

Human Herpesvirus-6 Pneumonitis around the Engraftment of Cord Blood Transplantation following Foscarnet Prophylaxis in a Patient with Acute Leukemia.

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1
Department of Hematology, Hokkaido University Hospital, Kita-15 Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0815, Japan.

Abstract

Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) reactivation is sometimes observed in immunocompromised patients, especially after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The complications of HHV-6 reactivation in this setting are mainly recognized as HHV-6 encephalitis. We herein report the case of a patient who developed HHV-6 pneumonitis after cord blood transplantation (CBT). A 35-year-old male underwent CBT for T-cell/myeloid mixed phenotype acute leukemia and achieved neutrophil engraftment on day 31. He had received foscarnet as prophylaxis for HHV-6 reactivation. A computed tomography (CT) scan to evaluate the leukemic tumor showed bilateral interstitial pneumonitis on day 33, although he had no respiratory symptoms. The findings of the CT scan were consistent with those of HHV-6 pneumonitis that were reported previously. HHV-6 DNA, but no other pathogens, was detected in his bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. The patient was successfully treated with a therapeutic dose of foscarnet. This case indicates that performing a CT scan around the time of neutrophil engraftment can play an important role in detecting the early phase of HHV-6 pneumonia, and BAL should be considered if features consistent with HHV-6 pneumonitis are observed in patients with a risk of HHV-6 reactivation.

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