Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Physiol Genomics. 2015 Apr;47(4):113-28. doi: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00117.2014. Epub 2015 Feb 3.

Transcriptomes reveal alterations in gravity impact circadian clocks and activate mechanotransduction pathways with adaptation through epigenetic change.

Author information

1
Department of Animal Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana; and theresa-casey@purdue.edu.
2
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Grand Valley State University, Allendale, Michigan.
3
Department of Animal Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana; and.

Abstract

Few studies have investigated the impact of alterations in gravity on mammalian transcriptomes. Here, we describe the impact of spaceflight on mammary transcriptome of late pregnant rats and the effect of hypergravity exposure on mammary, liver, and adipose transcriptomes in late pregnancy and at the onset of lactation. RNA was isolated from mammary collected on pregnancy day 20 from rats exposed to spaceflight from days 11 to 20 of gestation. To measure the impact of hypergravity on mammary, liver, and adipose transcriptomes we isolated RNA from tissues collected on P20 and lactation day 1 from rats exposed to hypergravity beginning on pregnancy day 9. Gene expression was measured with Affymetrix GeneChips. Microarray analysis of variance revealed alterations in gravity affected the expression of genes that regulate circadian clocks and activate mechanotransduction pathways. Changes in these systems may explain global gene expression changes in immune response, metabolism, and cell proliferation. Expression of genes that modify chromatin structure and methylation was affected, suggesting adaptation to gravity alterations may proceed through epigenetic change. Altered gravity experiments offer insights into the role of forces omnipresent on Earth that shape genomes in heritable ways. Our study is the first to analyze the impact of alterations in gravity on transcriptomes of pregnant and lactating mammals. Findings provide insight into systems that sense gravity and the way in which they affect phenotype, as well as the possibility of sustaining life beyond Earth's orbit.

KEYWORDS:

hypergravity; lactation; liver; mammary; pregnancy; spaceflight; transcriptome

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon
Loading ...
Support Center