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Am J Sports Med. 2015 May;43(5):1241-5. doi: 10.1177/0363546514567297. Epub 2015 Feb 3.

Vitamin D profile in National Football League players.

Author information

1
Department of Neurosurgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
2
Department of Neurosurgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA bostj@upmc.edu.
3
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
4
Pittsburgh Steelers Football Club, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

By maintaining phosphate and calcium homeostasis, vitamin D is critical for bone health and possibly physical performance. Hence, vitamin D is important to athletes. Few studies have investigated vitamin D levels in relation to fractures and performance in athletes, and no published study has included a multiracial sample of professional American football players.

PURPOSE:

To assess vitamin D levels, including the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, in professional American football players and to evaluate the association of vitamin D levels with race, fracture history, and the ability to obtain a contract position, which may be a marker for athletic performance.

STUDY DESIGN:

Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

METHODS:

Serum vitamin D levels of 80 professional football players from a single team in the National Football League were obtained during the 2011 off-season (mean age, 26.5±3.7 years; black, n=67 [84%]). These levels were used to compare injury reports from the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 seasons. Statistical analyses were performed to test if vitamin D levels were related to race, fracture history, and the ability to obtain a contract position.

RESULTS:

Mean vitamin D level was 27.4±11.7 ng/mL, with significantly lower levels for black players (25.6±11.3 ng/mL) versus white players (37.4±8.6 ng/mL; F 1,78=13.00, P=.001). All athletes who were vitamin D deficient were black. When controlling for number of professional years played, vitamin D levels were significantly lower in players with at least 1 bone fracture when compared with no fractures. Players who were released during the preseason because of either injury or poor performance had significantly lower vitamin D levels than did players who played in the regular season.

CONCLUSION:

Black professional football players have a higher rate of vitamin D deficiency than do white players. Furthermore, professional football players with higher vitamin D levels were more likely to obtain a contract position in the National Football League. Professional football players deficient in vitamin D levels may be at greater risk of bone fractures.

KEYWORDS:

25-hydroxyvitamin D; athletic training; football; injury prevention; vitamin D

PMID:
25649084
DOI:
10.1177/0363546514567297
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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