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Methods Mol Biol. 2016;1373:25-32. doi: 10.1007/7651_2014_181.

Complementation Plasmids, Inducible Gene-Expression Systems, and Reporters for Staphylococci.

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Department of Microbial Genetics, Faculty of Science, Interfaculty Institute of Microbiology and Infection Medicine Tübingen (IMIT), University of Tübingen, Waldhäuser Str. 70/8, 72076, Tübingen, Germany.
, Ernst-Simon-Str. 2-4, 72072, Tübingen, Germany.


A cornucopia of methods and molecular tools is available for genetic modification of staphylococci, as shown for at least ten different species to date (Prax et al. Microbiology 159:421-435, 2013). This chapter reviews a number of frequently used vectors for complementation purposes that usually replicate in E. coli and staphylococci and differ in parameters including copy number, mode of replication, and sequence length. Systems for the artificial control of gene expression are described that are modulated by low-molecular-weight effectors such as metal cations, carbohydrates, and antibiotics. Finally, the usefulness of reporter proteins that exhibit enzymatic or autofluorescent characteristics in staphylococci is highlighted.


Complementation; Inducible gene regulation; Plasmids; Reporter genes; Staphylococci; Staphylococcus aureus

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