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J Antimicrob Chemother. 2015 May;70(5):1314-21. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkv001. Epub 2015 Feb 1.

Novel gentamicin resistance genes in Campylobacter isolated from humans and retail meats in the USA.

Author information

1
Division of Animal and Food Microbiology, Office of Research, Center for Veterinary Medicine, US Food and Drug Administration, Laurel, Maryland, USA shaohua.zhao@fda.hhs.gov.
2
Division of Animal and Food Microbiology, Office of Research, Center for Veterinary Medicine, US Food and Drug Administration, Laurel, Maryland, USA.
3
Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To understand the molecular epidemiology of gentamicin-resistant Campylobacter and investigate aminoglycoside resistance mechanisms.

METHODS:

One-hundred-and-fifty-one gentamicin-resistant Campylobacter isolates from humans (n = 38 Campylobacter jejuni; n = 41, Campylobacter coli) and retail chickens (n = 72 C. coli), were screened for the presence of gentamicin resistance genes by PCR and subtyped using PFGE. A subset of the isolates (n = 41) was analysed using WGS.

RESULTS:

Nine variants of gentamicin resistance genes were identified: aph(2″)-Ib, Ic, Ig, If, If1, If3, Ih, aac(6')-Ie/aph(2″)-Ia and aac(6')-Ie/aph(2″)-If2. The aph(2″)-Ib, Ic, If1, If3, Ih and aac(6')-Ie/aph(2″)-If2 variants were identified for the first time in Campylobacter. Human isolates showed more diverse aminoglycoside resistance genes than did retail chicken isolates, in which only aph(2″)-Ic and -Ig were identified. The aph(2″)-Ig gene was only gene shared by C. coli isolates from human (n = 27) and retail chicken (n = 69). These isolates displayed the same resistance profile and similar PFGE patterns, suggesting that contaminated retail chicken was probably the source of human C. coli infections. Human isolates were genetically diverse and generally more resistant than the retail chicken isolates. The most frequent co-resistance was to tetracycline (78/79, 98.7%), followed by ciprofloxacin/nalidixic acid (46/79, 58.2%), erythromycin and azithromycin (36/79, 45.6%), telithromycin (32/79, 40.5%) and clindamycin (18/79, 22.8%). All human and retail meat isolates were susceptible to florfenicol.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study demonstrated that several new aminoglycoside resistance genes underlie the recent emergence of gentamicin-resistant Campylobacter, and that, in addition to contaminated retail chicken, other sources have also contributed to gentamicin-resistant Campylobacter infections in humans.

KEYWORDS:

Campylobacter; NARMS; PCR; WGS; gentamicin resistance

PMID:
25645207
DOI:
10.1093/jac/dkv001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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