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J Child Lang. 2015 Mar;42(2):239-73. doi: 10.1017/S030500091400049X.

The ubiquity of frequency effects in first language acquisition.

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University of LiverpoolESRC International Centre for Language and Communicative Development (LuCiD).
Australian National UniversityARC Centre of Excellence for the Dynamics of Language ESRC International Centre for Language and Communicative Development (LuCiD).
University of ManchesterESRC International Centre for Language and Communicative Development (LuCiD).


This review article presents evidence for the claim that frequency effects are pervasive in children's first language acquisition, and hence constitute a phenomenon that any successful account must explain. The article is organized around four key domains of research: children's acquisition of single words, inflectional morphology, simple syntactic constructions, and more advanced constructions. In presenting this evidence, we develop five theses. (i) There exist different types of frequency effect, from effects at the level of concrete lexical strings to effects at the level of abstract cues to thematic-role assignment, as well as effects of both token and type, and absolute and relative, frequency. High-frequency forms are (ii) early acquired and (iii) prevent errors in contexts where they are the target, but also (iv) cause errors in contexts in which a competing lower-frequency form is the target. (v) Frequency effects interact with other factors (e.g. serial position, utterance length), and the patterning of these interactions is generally informative with regard to the nature of the learning mechanism. We conclude by arguing that any successful account of language acquisition, from whatever theoretical standpoint, must be frequency sensitive to the extent that it can explain the effects documented in this review, and outline some types of account that do and do not meet this criterion.

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