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Mol Nutr Food Res. 2015 May;59(5):939-47. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201400722. Epub 2015 Mar 18.

Formula-derived advanced glycation end products are involved in the development of long-term inflammation and oxidative stress in kidney of IUGR piglets.

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UP-EGEAL 2012.10.101, Institut Polytechnique LaSalle Beauvais, Beauvais, France.



Formula-derived dietary advanced glycation end products (AGEs) may promote programming of inflammation and oxidative stress in the kidney of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) piglets.


IUGR piglets received either a low temperature heated formula (n = 8) or a high temperature heated formula (HHF: n = 8) or suckled naturally for 3 wk postnatally. Then they were fed with normal ad libitum regular diet. N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine (CML) was measured in plasma, feces, and formula by HPLC/MS-MS. CML was detected by immunofluorescence in kidney cells. Target renin-angiotensin-apoptotic, pro-inflammatory genes-p62 NF-κB, and soluble receptor of AGE (sRAGE) levels were quantified. Compared with that in controls, free CML and plasma urea increased significantly in the HHF-fed group at PND36 (p < 0.05). CML was detected in the nuclei of renal tubular cells of formula-fed piglets but not in suckled ones. This presence of CML was associated with the activation of the soluble receptor of AGE. AT1, AT2, caspase 3, caspase 8, NF-κB, p62 NF-κB, and total protein oxidation in kidney were higher in HHF-fed group as compared to LHF-fed group (p < 0.05).


Food processes aimed at reducing the concentration of AGEs in infant formula are urgently needed and may be therapeutically relevant for premature and/or IUGR babies.


Advanced glycation end products; Infant formula; Intrauterine growth retardation; Kidney disease; Programming

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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