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Dev Biol. 2015 Apr 1;400(1):105-17. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2015.01.020. Epub 2015 Jan 30.

Segmental border is defined by Ripply2-mediated Tbx6 repression independent of Mesp2.

Author information

1
Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.
2
Department of Genetics, SOKENDAI, Japan; National Institute of Genetics, Research Organization of Information and Systems, Yata 1111, Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540, Japan.
3
National Institute of Genetics, Research Organization of Information and Systems, Yata 1111, Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540, Japan.
4
Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan; Department of Genetics, SOKENDAI, Japan; National Institute of Genetics, Research Organization of Information and Systems, Yata 1111, Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540, Japan. Electronic address: ysaga@nig.ac.jp.

Abstract

The precise border of somites formed during mouse somitogenesis is defined by a Tbx6 expression domain, which is established by Mesp2-mediated Tbx6 suppression in the anterior part of the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). Ripply2, a target of Mesp2, is proposed to be involved in this down-regulation because Ripply2 deficiency causes an anterior expansion of the Tbx6 domain, resembling the Mesp2-null phenotype. However, it is unclear whether Ripply2 acts on Tbx6 independently or in association with Mesp2. To address this question, we generated three sets of transgenic mice with the following Ripply2 expression patterns: (1) overexpression in the endogenous expression domain, (2) expression instead of Mesp2 (Ripply2-knockin), and (3) ectopic expression in the entire PSM. We found accelerated Tbx6 degradation in the embryos showing Ripply2 overexpression. In the Ripply2-knockin embryos, the anterior limit of Tbx6 domain was generated by Ripply2 even in the absence of Mesp2. Ectopic Ripply2 expression along the entire PSM suppressed Tbx6 and induced Sox2-positive neural tube formation at the bilateral domain, resembling the Tbx6-null phenotype. This phenotype resulted from Tbx6 protein and not mRNA elimination, suggesting the post-translational down-regulation of Tbx6 by Ripply2. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Ripply2 represses Tbx6 in a Mesp2-independent manner, which contributes to the accurate segmental border formation.

KEYWORDS:

Presomitic mesoderm; Ripply2; Segmentation; Somitogenesis; Tbx6

PMID:
25641698
DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2015.01.020
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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