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J Chromatogr A. 2015 Feb 27;1383:104-11. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2015.01.033. Epub 2015 Jan 17.

Rapid analysis of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in fish plasma micro-aliquots using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

Author information

1
Graduate School of Integrated Sciences and Engineering (NGS), National University of Singapore, Singapore.
2
Graduate School of Integrated Sciences and Engineering (NGS), National University of Singapore, Singapore; Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
3
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Electronic address: bckelly@nus.edu.sg.

Abstract

A sensitive analytical method based on liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for rapid analysis of 11 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in fish plasma micro-aliquots (∼20μL). Target PPCPs included, bisphenol A, carbamazepine, diclofenac, fluoxetine, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, naproxen, risperidone, sertraline, simvastatin and triclosan. A relatively quicker and cheaper LLE procedure exhibited comparable analyte recoveries with solid-phase extraction. Rapid separation and analysis of target compounds in fish plasma extracts was achieved by employing a high efficiency C-18 HPLC column (Agilent Poroshell 120 SB-C18, 2.1mm×50mm, 2.7μm) and fast polarity switching, enabling effective monitoring of positive and negative ions in a single 9min run. With the exception of bisphenol A, which exhibited relatively high background contamination, method detection limits of individual PPCPs ranged between 0.15 and 0.69pg/μL, while method quantification limits were between 0.05 and 2.3pg/μL. Mean matrix effect (ME) values ranged between 65 and 156% for the various target analytes. Isotope dilution quantification using isotopically labelled internal surrogates was utilized to correct for signal suppression or enhancement and analyte losses during sample preparation. The method was evaluated by analysis of 20μL plasma micro-aliquots collected from zebrafish (Danio rerio) from a laboratory bioaccumulation study, which included control group fish (no exposure), as well as fish exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of PPCPs. Using the developed LC-MS/MS based method, concentrations of the studied PPCPs were consistently detected in the low pg/μL (ppb) range. The method may be useful for investigations requiring fast, reliable concentration measurements of PPCPs in fish plasma. In particular, the method may be applicable for in situ contaminant biomonitoring, as well as bioaccumulation and toxicology studies employing small fishes with low blood compartment volumes.

KEYWORDS:

Fish; LC–MS/MS; Personal care products; Pharmaceuticals; Plasma; Rapid analysis

PMID:
25640994
DOI:
10.1016/j.chroma.2015.01.033
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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