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Microbes Infect. 2015 Jun;17(6):409-16. doi: 10.1016/j.micinf.2015.01.002. Epub 2015 Jan 28.

The Anopheles gambiae cE5 salivary protein: a sensitive biomarker to evaluate the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets in malaria vector control.

Author information

1
MIVEGEC, UMR IRD-224 CNRS-5290 UM1-UM2, 911 Av. Agropolis, 34394 Montpellier Cedex 5, France. Electronic address: alexandra.marie@ird.fr.
2
Department of Biology, "Federico II" University, Via Cinthia, 80126 Naples, Italy.
3
MIVEGEC, UMR IRD-224 CNRS-5290 UM1-UM2, 911 Av. Agropolis, 34394 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.
4
Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Parasitology Section, Sapienza University, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy.
5
MIVEGEC, UMR IRD-224 CNRS-5290 UM1-UM2, 911 Av. Agropolis, 34394 Montpellier Cedex 5, France; MIVEGEC-IRD-CREC, 01 BP44 RP Cotonou, Benin.
6
Malaria Control Program-SONAMET Clinic, Lobito, Angola.
7
Malaria Control Program, Ministry of Public Health, Luanda, Angola.
8
IRD, Montpellier, France.
9
Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Parasitology Section, Sapienza University, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy. Electronic address: bruno.arca@uniroma1.it.

Abstract

Evaluation of vector control is crucial for improving malaria containment and, according to World Health Organization, new complementary indicators would be very valuable. In this study the IgG response to the Anopheles-specific cE5 salivary protein was tested as a tool to evaluate the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets in reducing human exposure to malaria vectors. Sera collected during a longitudinal study carried out in Angola, and including entomological and parasitological data, were used to assess the IgG response to the Anopheles gambiae cE5 in both children and adults, before and after the application of insecticide-treated nets. Seasonal fluctuation of specific IgG antibody levels according to exposure was only found in children (up to ≈ 14 years old) whose anti-cE5 IgG response dropped after bed nets installation. These results were fully consistent with previous findings obtained with the same set of sera and indicating a substantial reduction of human-vector contact shortly after nets implementation. Overall, children IgG response to the cE5 protein appeared a very sensitive biomarker, which allowed for the detection of even weak exposure to Anopheles bites, indicating it may represent a reliable additional tool to evaluate the efficacy of vector control interventions.

KEYWORDS:

Anopheles gambiae; Biomarker; Insecticide-treated nets; Malaria; Vector exposure; cE5 salivary protein

PMID:
25637950
DOI:
10.1016/j.micinf.2015.01.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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