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J Thorac Oncol. 2015 May;10(5):838-43. doi: 10.1097/JTO.0000000000000481.

Updated Frequency of EGFR and KRAS Mutations in NonSmall-Cell Lung Cancer in Latin America: The Latin-American Consortium for the Investigation of Lung Cancer (CLICaP).

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*Thoracic Oncology Clinic and Experimental Oncology Laboratory, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia de México, México D.F., México; †Clinical and Translational Oncology Group, Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá, Bogotá, Colombia; ‡Department of Oncology, Alexander Fleming Institute, Buenos Aires, Argentina; §Department of Clinical Oncology, Instituto de Enfermedades Neoplásicas, Perú; ‖Oncología Médica, Hospital San Juan de Dios, San José, Costa Rica; ¶Cátedra de Farmacología, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos, Fundación Investigar, Buenos Aires, Argentina; #Instituto Oncológico Nacional, Ancón, Panamá; **Broad Institute of Harvard, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts; ††Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts; ‡‡Centro Médico Nacional 20 de Noviembre de México, ISSSTE, México D.F., México; §§Departament of Medicine, Hospital de Clínicas UdelaR, Montevideo, Uruguay; and ‖‖Clínica Del Hospital Británico de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires.



Previously, we reported the frequency of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and KRAS mutations in nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in Latin America. The EGFR mutation frequency was found between Asian (40%) and Caucasian (15%) populations. Here, we report the updated distribution of NSCLC mutations.


A total of 5738 samples from NSCLC patients from Argentina (1713), Mexico (1417), Colombia (1939), Peru (393), Panama (174), and Costa Rica (102) were genotyped for EGFR and KRAS.


The median patient age was 62.2 ± 12.3 years; 53.5% were women, 46.7% had a history of smoking, and 95.2% had adenocarcinoma histology. The frequency of EGFR mutations was 26.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 24.9-27.1; Argentina, 14.4% [12.8-15.6]; México, 34.3% [31.9-36.7]; Colombia, 24.7% [22.8-26.6]; Peru, 51.1% [46.2-55.9]; Panamá, 27.3 [20.7-33.9]; and Costa Rica, 31.4% [22.4-40.4]). The frequency of KRAS mutations was 14.0% (9.1-18.9). In patients with adenocarcinoma, EGFR mutations were independently associated with gender (30.7% females vs. 18.4% males; p < 0.001), nonsmoker status (27.4% vs. 17.1%, p < 0.001), ethnicity (mestizo/indigenous, 35.3% vs. Caucasian, 13.7%, p < 0.001), and the absence of KRAS mutation (38.1% vs. 4.7%; p < 0.001). The overall response rate to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors was 60.6% (95% CI, 52-69), with a median progression-free survival and overall survival of 15.9 (95% CI, 12.420.6) and 32 months (95% CI, 26.5-37.6), respectively.


Our findings support the genetic heterogeneity of NSCLC in Latin America, confirming that the frequency of EGFR mutations is intermediate between that observed in the Asian and Caucasian populations.

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