Send to

Choose Destination
Arch Dis Child. 2015 Jul;100(7):678-81. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2014-307035. Epub 2015 Jan 29.

The congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders.

Author information

Department of Neurology, Royal Devon and Exeter Foundation Hospital, Exeter, UK University of Exeter Medical School, Exeter, UK.
University of Exeter Medical School, Exeter, UK.


Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDD) encompass a number of related conditions and includes Duane syndrome, congenital fibrosis of the external ocular muscles, Möbius syndrome, congenital ptosis and hereditary congenital facial paresis. These are congenital disorders where the primary findings are non-progressive and are caused by developmental abnormalities of cranial nerves/nuclei with primary or secondary dysinnervation. Several CCDD genes have been found, which enhance our understanding of the mechanisms involved in brain stem development and axonal guidance.


Genetics; Neurodevelopment; Neurology; Neuromuscular; Ophthalmology

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire
Loading ...
Support Center