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J Endourol. 2015 Jul;29(7):791-6. doi: 10.1089/end.2015.0029. Epub 2015 Apr 13.

Does Listening to Music During Office-Based Flexible Cystoscopy Decrease Anxiety in Patients: A Prospective Randomized Trial.

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1 Department of Urology, University of California (UC) San Diego Health System , San Diego, California.
2 Urology Service, VA San Diego Healthcare System , San Diego, California.



To validate the effect of listening to music on perceived anxiety and pain during office-based flexible cystoscopy using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), in a well-matched North American veteran patient population in a prospective, randomized fashion.


A total of 137 veteran patients receiving routine urologic care in a North American Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system were recruited over a 2-year period (June 2011 to June 2013). All patients were prospectively randomized to undergo office-based flexible cystoscopy with or without music. The music group consisted of 73 patients who listened to the same excerpt of classical music at the time of flexible cystoscopy; the nonmusic group consisted of 64 patients.


The median postprocedural STAI anxiety scores between the music and nonmusic groups were statistically significantly different: 30 (range 23-39) and 35 (range 28-49), respectively (P=0.0017). The median postprocedural pain VAS score between the music and nonmusic groups reached statistical significance: 0 (range 0-1) and 2 (range 1-2), respectively (P<0.0001). The median delta STAI anxiety score was statistically significantly different between the music and nonmusic groups: 0 (range -3-0) and 2 (range 0-4), respectively (P<0.0001).


This study demonstrates that listening to music decreases anxiety and pain associated with flexible cystoscopy in a North American VA patient population. We recommend incorporating music as an effective adjunct to other maneuvers used at the time of flexible cystoscopy to reduce anxiety and pain.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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