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Saudi Med J. 2015 Jan;36(1):20-5. doi: 10.15537/smj.2015.1.9763.

Characteristics of pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis patients in Saudi Arabia.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, King Abdulaziz Medical City, PO Box 22490, Riyadh 11426, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Tel. +966 (11) 8011111 Ext. 12841. Fax. +966 (11) 2520088 Ext. 11640. E-mail. naeemm@ngha.med.sa.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To evaluate the clinical and biochemical characteristics of children with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).

METHODS:

In this retrospective study conducted between June 2012 and November 2013 at the King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, we evaluated pediatric DKA admissions from 1995-2008 (Phase 1). From the case files, we obtained information related to patients' age, gender, weight, presenting complaints, serum biochemical profile, and management.

RESULTS:

This study included 373 DKA admissions with a median age of 11 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 8-13). The patients in the subgroup of age more than 10 years old had the highest proportion of admissions (n=250, 67%, p<0.000). The median duration of diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM) was 3 years (IQR: 2-6). New-onset DM was 47%. Predominant precipitating cause was acute illness, mostly viral syndrome in 22% of all cases, and non-compliance to insulin regimen was in 79% of  the diagnosed diabetic cases. Blood glucose, pH, anion gap, serum osmolality, serum potassium, and serum phosphate showed the highest change during the initial 6 hours of management, while trends of serum bicarbonate and blood urea nitrogen demonstrated a predominant change in the initial 12 hours.

CONCLUSION:

The notable findings in this study, such as, higher mean age of presentation, high rate of non-compliance to insulin as the cause of precipitation, and a high prevalence of abdominal pain at presentation should be followed up with further comparative studies.

PMID:
25630000
PMCID:
PMC4362198
DOI:
10.15537/smj.2015.1.9763
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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