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Toxicol Sci. 2015 Feb;143(2):242-55. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfu233.

Molecular mechanisms of acrolein toxicity: relevance to human disease.

Author information

1
*Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Medicine and Robley Rex VAMC, Louisville, Kentucky 40202.
2
*Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Medicine and Robley Rex VAMC, Louisville, Kentucky 40202 *Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Medicine and Robley Rex VAMC, Louisville, Kentucky 40202.
3
*Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Medicine and Robley Rex VAMC, Louisville, Kentucky 40202 *Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Medicine and Robley Rex VAMC, Louisville, Kentucky 40202 *Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Medicine and Robley Rex VAMC, Louisville, Kentucky 40202.
4
*Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Medicine and Robley Rex VAMC, Louisville, Kentucky 40202 *Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Medicine and Robley Rex VAMC, Louisville, Kentucky 40202 s0josh01@louisville.edu.

Abstract

Acrolein, a highly reactive unsaturated aldehyde, is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and its potential as a serious environmental health threat is beginning to be recognized. Humans are exposed to acrolein per oral (food and water), respiratory (cigarette smoke, automobile exhaust, and biocide use) and dermal routes, in addition to endogenous generation (metabolism and lipid peroxidation). Acrolein has been suggested to play a role in several disease states including spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and neuro-, hepato-, and nephro-toxicity. On the cellular level, acrolein exposure has diverse toxic effects, including DNA and protein adduction, oxidative stress, mitochondrial disruption, membrane damage, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and immune dysfunction. This review addresses our current understanding of each pathogenic mechanism of acrolein toxicity, with emphasis on the known and anticipated contribution to clinical disease, and potential therapies.

KEYWORDS:

DNA adducts; antioxidants; apoptosis; environmental; exposure; inflammation; oxidative injury

PMID:
25628402
PMCID:
PMC4306719
DOI:
10.1093/toxsci/kfu233
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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