Send to

Choose Destination
J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2017 Mar;11(3):877-886. doi: 10.1002/term.1988. Epub 2015 Jan 28.

Human chondrocyte migration behaviour to guide the development of engineered cartilage.

Author information

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
Missouri Orthopedic Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.
Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, and NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.


Tissue-engineering techniques have been successful in developing cartilage-like tissues in vitro using cells from animal sources. The successful translation of these strategies to the clinic will likely require cell expansion to achieve sufficient cell numbers. Using a two-dimensional (2D) cell migration assay to first identify the passage at which chondrocytes exhibited their greatest chondrogenic potential, the objective of this study was to determine a more optimal culture medium for developing three-dimensional (3D) cartilage-like tissues using human cells. We evaluated combinations of commonly used growth factors that have been shown to promote chondrogenic growth and development. Human articular chondrocytes (AC) from osteoarthritic (OA) joints were cultured in 3D environments, either in pellets or encapsulated in agarose. The effect of growth factor supplementation was dependent on the environment, such that matrix deposition differed between the two culture systems. ACs in pellet culture were more responsive to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP2) alone or combinations containing BMP2 (i.e. BMP2 with PDGF or FGF). However, engineered cartilage development within agarose was better for constructs cultured with TGFβ3. These results with agarose and pellet culture studies set the stage for the development of conditions appropriate for culturing 3D functional engineered cartilage for eventual use in human therapies.


agarose; articular cartilage; chondrocytes; osteoarthritis; pellet culture; tissue engineering

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center