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World Allergy Organ J. 2015 Jan 27;8(1):3. doi: 10.1186/s40413-014-0048-6. eCollection 2015.

The microbiome of the upper airways: focus on chronic rhinosinusitis.

Author information

1
Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, The Upper Airways Research Laboratory (URL), Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, 9000 Belgium ; Department of Otolaryngology, Phramongkutklao Hospital and College of Medicine, Royal Thai Army, Bangkok, 10400 Thailand.
2
Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, The Upper Airways Research Laboratory (URL), Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, 9000 Belgium ; Basic Biomedical Sciences Department, Health Faculty, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia.
3
Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, The Upper Airways Research Laboratory (URL), Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, 9000 Belgium ; Division of ENT Diseases, Clintec, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Abstract

Upper airway diseases including allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis with or without polyps, and cystic fibrosis are characterized by substantially different inflammatory profiles. Traditionally, studies on the association of specific bacterial patterns with inflammatory profiles of diseases had been dependent on bacterial culturing. In the past 30 years, molecular biology methods have allowed bacterial culture free studies of microbial communities, revealing microbiota much more diverse than previously recognized including those found in the upper airway. At presence, the study of the pathophysiology of upper airway diseases is necessary to establish the relationship between the microbiome and inflammatory patterns to find their clinical reflections and also their possible causal relationships. Such investigations may elucidate the path to therapeutic approaches in correcting an imbalanced microbiome. In the review we summarized techniques used and the current knowledge on the microbiome of upper airway diseases, the limitations and pitfalls, and identified areas of interest for further research.

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