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Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Mar 1;148:165-71. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.01.004. Epub 2015 Jan 13.

Associations between cigarette smoking and cannabis dependence: a longitudinal study of young cannabis users in the United Kingdom.

Author information

1
Clinical Psychopharmacology Unit, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom. Electronic address: c.hindocha@ucl.ac.uk.
2
Clinical Psychopharmacology Unit, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.
3
Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.
4
Clinical Psychopharmacology Unit, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom; Department of Psychology, University of Exeter, Washington Singer Building, Perry Road, Exeter EX4 4QG, United Kingdom.

Abstract

AIMS:

To determine the degree to which cigarette smoking predicts levels of cannabis dependence above and beyond cannabis use itself, concurrently and in an exploratory four-year follow-up, and to investigate whether cigarette smoking mediates the relationship between cannabis use and cannabis dependence.

METHODS:

The study was cross sectional with an exploratory follow-up in the participants' own homes or via telephone interviews in the United Kingdom. Participants were 298 cannabis and tobacco users aged between 16 and 23; follow-up consisted of 65 cannabis and tobacco users. The primary outcome variable was cannabis dependence as measured by the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS). Cannabis and tobacco smoking were assessed through a self-reported drug history.

RESULTS:

Regression analyses at baseline showed cigarette smoking (frequency of cigarette smoking: B=0.029, 95% CI=0.01, 0.05; years of cigarette smoking: B=0.159, 95% CI=0.05, 0.27) accounted for 29% of the variance in cannabis dependence when controlling for frequency of cannabis use. At follow-up, only baseline cannabis dependence predicted follow-up cannabis dependence (B=0.274, 95% CI=0.05, 0.53). At baseline, cigarette smoking mediated the relationship between frequency of cannabis use and dependence (B=0.0168, 95% CI=0.008, 0.288) even when controlling for possible confounding variables (B=0.0153, 95% CI=0.007, 0.027).

CONCLUSIONS:

Cigarette smoking is related to concurrent cannabis dependence independently of cannabis use frequency. Cigarette smoking also mediates the relationship between cannabis use and cannabis dependence suggesting tobacco is a partial driver of cannabis dependence in young people who use cannabis and tobacco.

KEYWORDS:

Addiction; Cannabis; Co-morbidity; Dependence; Longitudinal; Tobacco; United Kingdom

PMID:
25622777
PMCID:
PMC4337852
DOI:
10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.01.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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