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Mech Dev. 2015 May;136:87-98. doi: 10.1016/j.mod.2015.01.001. Epub 2015 Jan 23.

Distortion of frontal bones results from cell apoptosis by the mechanical force from the up-migrating eye during metamorphosis in Paralichthys olivaceus.

Author information

1
The Key Laboratory of Exploration and Utilization of Aquatic Genetic Resources, Shanghai Ocean University, Ministry of Education, Shanghai 201306, China.
2
Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences (CAFS), Key Laboratory for Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Qingdao, China.
3
Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences (CAFS), Key Laboratory for Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Qingdao, China. Electronic address: chensl@ysfri.ac.cn.
4
The Key Laboratory of Exploration and Utilization of Aquatic Genetic Resources, Shanghai Ocean University, Ministry of Education, Shanghai 201306, China. Electronic address: blbao@shou.edu.cn.

Abstract

Craniofacial remodeling during flatfish metamorphosis, including eye migration, is perhaps the most striking example of asymmetric postembryonic development in the vertebrate world. The asymmetry of the cranium mainly results from distortion of the frontal bones, which depends on eye migration during metamorphosis. However, it is unclear how the up-migrating eye causes distortion of the frontal bones. In this study, we first show that distortion of the frontal bones during metamorphosis in Paralichthys olivaceus is the result of cell apoptosis, rather than cell autophagy or cell proliferation. Secondly, we report that cell apoptosis in the frontal bones is induced by the mechanical force transferred from the up-migrating eye. The mechanical force from the up-migrating eye signals through FAK to downstream molecules that are integrated into the BMP-2 signal pathway. Finally, it is shown that cell apoptosis in the frontal bones is activated by the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway; the extrinsic death receptor is not involved in this process. Moreover, cell apoptosis in frontal bones is not induced directly by thyroid hormones, which are thought to mediate metamorphosis in flatfishes and directly mediate cell apoptosis during amphibian metamorphosis. These findings help identify the major signaling route used during regulation of frontal bone distortion during metamorphosis in flatfish, and indicate that the asymmetry of the cranium, or at least the distortion of frontal bones, is the result of rather than the reason underlying eye migration.

KEYWORDS:

Cell apoptosis; Eye migration; Flatfish; Frontal bones; Mechanical force; Metamorphosis

PMID:
25622577
DOI:
10.1016/j.mod.2015.01.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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