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Eur J Nutr. 2016 Feb;55(1):93-106. doi: 10.1007/s00394-014-0828-3. Epub 2015 Jan 24.

Nutritional adequacy according to carbohydrates and fat quality.

Collaborators (201)

Toledo E, Sanjulian B, Marti A, Martínez JA, Buil-Cosiales P, Serrano-Martinez M, Diez-Espino J, Garcia-Arellano A, Basterra-Gortari J, Extremera-Urabayen V, Garcia-Perez L, Arroyo-Azpa C, Sola Larraza A, Barcena F, Oreja Arrayago C, Lasante Saez MJ, Quintana Pedraza L, Amezqueta Goñi C, Cia Lecumberri P, Elcarte Lopez T, Artal Moneva F, Esparza Lopez JM, Figuerido Garmendia E, Ruiz Millan H, Oses Primo R, Tabar Sarrias JA, Fernandez Urzainqui L, Ariz Arnedo MJ, Serra M, Perez-Heras A, Vinas C, Casas R, de Santamaria L, Romero S, Baena JM, Garcia M, Oller M, Amat J, Duaso I, Garcia Y, Iglesias C, Simon C, Quinzavos L, Parra L, Liroz M, Benavent J, Clos J, Pla I, Amoros M, Bonet MT, Martin MT, Sanchez MS, Altirruba J, Manzano E, Altes A, Cofan M, Valls-Pedret C, Sala-Vila A, Domenech M, Basora J, Gonzalez R, Molina C, Marquez F, Babio N, Martinez P, Ibarrola N, Balanza R, Sorli M, Garcia Roselló J, Martin F, Tort R, Isach A, Costa B, Cabre JJ, Fernandez-Ballart J, Fito M, Tello S, Vila J, de la Torre R, Munoz-Aguayo D, Elosua R, Marrugat J, Ferrer M, Carrasco P, Ortega-Azorín C, Asensio EM, Osma R, Barragán R, Francés F, Guillén M, González JI, Saiz C, Portolés O, Giménez FJ, Coltell O, Guillem-Saiz P, Quiles L, Pascual V, Riera C, Pages MA, Godoy D, Carratalá-Calvo A, Martín-Rillo MJ, Llopis-Osorio E, Ruiz-Baixauli J, Bertolín-Muñoz A, Salaverria I, del Hierro T, Algorta J, Francisco S, Alonso A, San Vicente J, Casi A, Sanz E, Felipe I, Rekondo J, Loma-Osorio A, Pont R, Alba M, Navajas, Warnberg J, Gomez-Huelgas R, Martinez-Gonzalez J, Garcia V, de Diego J, Salas, Baca Osorio A, Zarzosa J, Luque JJ, Lopez E, Ruiz-Gutierrez V, Perona JS, Romero E, Garcia-Garcia M, Jurado-Ruiz E, Garcia-Valdueza M, Monino M, Proenza A, Prieto R, Frontera G, Ginard M, Jover A, Romaguera D, Garcia J, Leal M, Martinez E, Santos JM, Ortega-Calvo M, Roman P, Garcia F, Iglesias P, Corchado Y, Mayoral E, Mellado L, Miró L, Lozano JM, Lama C, Lamuela-Raventos RM, Castellote-Bargallo AI, Medina-Remon A, Tresserra-Rimbau A, Alvarez-Perez J, Benitez E, Castaño I, Diaz I, Sanchez-Villegas A, Férnandez-Rodríguez MJ, Sarmiendo de la Fe F, Garcia C, Falcon I, Sanabria, Macias Gutierrez B, Santana AJ, de la Cruz E, Galera A, Soler Y, Trias F, Sarasa I, Padres E, Corbella E, Muñoz MA, Cabezas C, Vinyoles E, Rovira MA, Garcia L, Flores G, Verdu JM, Baby P, Ramos A, Mengual L, Roura P, Yuste MC, Guarner A, Rovira A, Santamaria MI, Mata M, de Juan C, Brau A, Tur JA, Portillo MP, Saez G.

Author information

1
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine-Clinica Universidad de Navarra, University of Navarra, Irunlarrea 1, 31008, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain. asanchez4@unav.es.
2
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine-Clinica Universidad de Navarra, University of Navarra, Irunlarrea 1, 31008, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain. izazpe@unav.es.
3
Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Navarra, Irunlarrea 1, 31008, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain. izazpe@unav.es.
4
Biomedical Research Centre Network on Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERobn) Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. izazpe@unav.es.
5
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine-Clinica Universidad de Navarra, University of Navarra, Irunlarrea 1, 31008, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain. mbes@unav.es.
6
Biomedical Research Centre Network on Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERobn) Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. mbes@unav.es.
7
Biomedical Research Centre Network on Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERobn) Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. jordi.salas@urv.cat.
8
Human Nutrition Unit, Sant Joan Hospital, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Spain. jordi.salas@urv.cat.
9
Biomedical Research Centre Network on Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERobn) Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. monica.bullo@urv.cat.
10
Human Nutrition Department, University Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Spain. monica.bullo@urv.cat.
11
Biomedical Research Centre Network on Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERobn) Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
12
Primary Care Division, Valencia Institute of Health and Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
13
Biomedical Research Centre Network on Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERobn) Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. dolores.corella@uv.es.
14
Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain. dolores.corella@uv.es.
15
Biomedical Research Centre Network on Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERobn) Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. MCovas@IMIM.ES.
16
Cardiovascular Epidemiology Unit, Municipal Institute for Medical Research (IMIM), Barcelona, Spain. MCovas@IMIM.ES.
17
Biomedical Research Centre Network on Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERobn) Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. aborau@secardiologia.es.
18
Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Txagorritxu-University Hospital of Alava, Vitoria, Spain. aborau@secardiologia.es.
19
Biomedical Research Centre Network on Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERobn) Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. bedmar@uma.es.
20
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Málaga, Málaga, Spain. bedmar@uma.es.
21
Biomedical Research Centre Network on Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERobn) Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. miquelfiol@yahoo.es.
22
Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Palma (IdISPa), Hospital Son Espases, Palma de Mallorca, Spain. miquelfiol@yahoo.es.
23
Biomedical Research Centre Network on Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERobn) Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. pdelacorte@hotmail.com.
24
Primary Care Division of Sevilla, Department of Family Medicine, San Pablo Health Center, Sevilla, Spain. pdelacorte@hotmail.com.
25
Biomedical Research Centre Network on Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERobn) Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. lserra@dcc.ulpgc.es.
26
Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain. lserra@dcc.ulpgc.es.
27
Biomedical Research Centre Network on Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERobn) Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. xpinto@csub.scs.es.
28
Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitario de Bellvitge, Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain. xpinto@csub.scs.es.
29
IMIM-Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute and CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Barcelona, Spain. hschroeder@imim.es.
30
Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. hschroeder@imim.es.
31
Biomedical Research Centre Network on Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERobn) Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. EROS@clinic.ub.es.
32
Lipid Clinic, Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Clinic, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain. EROS@clinic.ub.es.
33
Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. mclopez@ub.edu.
34
Biomedical Research Centre Network on Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERobn) Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. restruch@clinic.ub.es.
35
Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Clinic, IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. restruch@clinic.ub.es.
36
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine-Clinica Universidad de Navarra, University of Navarra, Irunlarrea 1, 31008, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain. mamartinez@unav.es.
37
Biomedical Research Centre Network on Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERobn) Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. mamartinez@unav.es.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To investigate the association between carbohydrate quality, fat quality or adherence to the Mediterranean diet and intake adequacy of 19 micronutrients in the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) trial, a multicenter, randomized, controlled, parallel group and primary prevention trial conducted in Spain.

METHODS:

We assessed baseline dietary intake of 6,542 elderly subjects at high cardiovascular risk through a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a validated 14-item Mediterranean diet (Med-diet) score. We used a multidimensional carbohydrate quality index (CQI) using four criteria and a fat quality index (FQI) according to the ratio (MUFA + PUFA)/(SFA + TFA). The probability of intake adequacy was calculated comparing the intakes to DRI, and also using the probabilistic approach. Absolute and adjusted probability of having inadequate intake for either ≥6 DRI or ≥8 DRI were estimated to assess nutritional adequacy according to quintiles of each index.

RESULTS:

The lowest prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake (≥8 DRI) was found in the highest quintile of CQI or Med-diet score, and in the lowest quintile of FQI (adjusted fold risk: 1.4, 3.4 and 10.2 respectively in comparison with the lowest quintile). P for trend <0.001 in three multivariable models. A higher CQI or Med-Diet score and a lower FQI were significantly associated with a lower fold risk of unmet EAR values.

CONCLUSIONS:

A multidimensional assessment of CQI can be a useful tool to evaluate the quality of carbohydrates. This score and a 14-item Med-diet score were positively related to overall micronutrient adequacy in elderly participants.

KEYWORDS:

Carbohydrate quality; Fat quality; Mediterranean diet; Micronutrient adequacy; PREDIMED trial

PMID:
25616935
DOI:
10.1007/s00394-014-0828-3
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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