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Eur J Public Health. 2015 Aug;25(4):698-705. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/cku234. Epub 2015 Jan 22.

Gender differences in hazardous drinking among middle-aged in Europe: the role of social context and women's empowerment.

Author information

1
1 Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, 08023 Barcelona, Spain 2 Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica Sant Pau (IIB Sant Pau), 08025 Barcelona, Spain 3 Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), 08003 Barcelona, Spain.
2
1 Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, 08023 Barcelona, Spain 2 Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica Sant Pau (IIB Sant Pau), 08025 Barcelona, Spain 4 CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain 5 Departament de Psicobiologia i Metodologia en Ciències de la Salut, Facultat de Psicologia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès), Spain aespelt@aspb.cat.
3
1 Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, 08023 Barcelona, Spain 2 Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica Sant Pau (IIB Sant Pau), 08025 Barcelona, Spain 3 Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), 08003 Barcelona, Spain 4 CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain.
4
1 Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, 08023 Barcelona, Spain 2 Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica Sant Pau (IIB Sant Pau), 08025 Barcelona, Spain.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The aim of this study was to estimate the magnitude of gender differences in hazardous drinking among middle-aged people and to analyse whether these differences are associated with contextual factors, such as public policies or socioeconomic factors.

METHODS:

Cross-sectional design. The study population included 50- to 64-year-old residents of 16 European countries who participated in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe project conducted in 2010-12 (n = 26 017). We estimated gender differences in hazardous drinking in each country. To determine whether different social context or women's empowerment variables were associated with gender differences in hazardous drinking, we fitted multilevel Poisson regression models adjusted for various individual and country-level variables, which yielded prevalence ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).

RESULTS:

Prevalence of hazardous drinking was significantly higher in men than women [30.2% (95% CI: 29.1-31.4%) and 18.6% (95% CI: 17.7-19.4%), respectively] in most countries, although the extent of these differences varied between countries. Among individuals aged 50-64 years in Europe, risk of becoming a hazardous drinker was 1.69 times higher (95% CI: 1.45-1.97) in men, after controlling for individual and country-level variables. We also found that lower values of the gender empowerment measure and higher unemployment rates were associated with higher gender differences in hazardous drinking.

CONCLUSION:

Countries with the greatest gender differences in hazardous drinking were those with the most restrictions on women's behaviour, and the greatest gender inequalities in daily life. Lower gender differences in hazardous drinking seem to be related to higher consumption among women.

PMID:
25616593
PMCID:
PMC4834909
DOI:
10.1093/eurpub/cku234
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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