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Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2015 Apr 5;140:311-27. doi: 10.1016/j.saa.2014.12.011. Epub 2014 Dec 30.

Optical, vibrational, NBO, first-order molecular hyperpolarizability and Hirshfeld surface analysis of a nonlinear optical chalcone.

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Department of Chemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar 608 002, India.
Department of Chemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar 608 002, India. Electronic address:


The synthesis of (1E,4E)-1,5-di-p-tolylpenta-1,4-dien-3-one (DTDO) was done and its single crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution technique from 4-methylbenzaldehyde, acetone solution at room temperature. Crystal structure is determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and reveals that it belongs to the monoclinic system with four molecules in the unit cell (space group C2). The emission of green light from the sample confirms the second harmonic generation (SHG) of the specimen responsible for nonlinear optical property. The various vibration patterns of the specimen have been investigated by Fourier transform infrared and Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy. Optimized molecular geometry, vibrational patterns of DTDO are derived from density functional theory (DFT) calculations and the results are compared with experimental one. The molecular stability and bond strengths were investigated by applying the natural bond orbital analysis. Information about the size, shape, charge density distribution and site of chemical reactivity of the molecule has been obtained by mapping electron density with molecular electrostatic potential (MEP). Highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy gaps were calculated. The other molecular properties like charge transfer are explained using Mulliken population analysis and the first-order molecular hyperpolarizability (β) of the specimen is also estimated and SHG efficiency of DTDO was found to be 3.9 times that of KDP. Fingerprint plots and Hirshfeld surfaces were used to locate and analyze the molecular surface and bonding interactions in various methodologies utilized in the establishment of the relative energies.


Hirshfeld surface; Hyperpolarizability; NBO analysis; Nonlinear optical material; Vibrational pattern

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