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World J Mens Health. 2014 Dec;32(3):167-75. doi: 10.5534/wjmh.2014.32.3.167. Epub 2014 Dec 29.

Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between CXCR4 Expression and Metastasis in Prostate Cancer.

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Department of Urology, Severance Hospital, Urological Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
Department of Urology, Yangpyeong Health Center, Yangpyeong, Korea.
Division of Epidemic Intelligence Service, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong, Korea.
Department of Pathology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
Department of Urology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Urological Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.



Experimental studies have suggested that the stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXCR4 axis is associated with tumor aggressiveness and metastasis in several malignancies. We performed a meta-analysis to elucidate the relationship between CXCR4 expression and the clinicopathological features of prostate cancer.


Data were collected from studies comparing Gleason score, T stage, and the presence of metastasis with CXCR4 levels in human prostate cancer samples. The studies were pooled, and the odds ratio (OR) of CXCR4 expression for clinical and pathological variables was calculated.


Five articles were eligible for the current meta-analysis. We found no relationship between CXCR4 expression and Gleason score (<7 vs. ≥7). The forest plot using the fixed-effects model indicated an OR of 1.585 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.793~3.171; p=0.193). Further, CXCR4 expression was not associated with the T stage (<T3 vs. ≥T3), and the relevant meta-analysis showed OR=1.803 (95% CI: 0.756~4.297, p=0.183). However, increased CXCR4 expression was strongly associated with metastatic disease with a fixed-effects pooled OR of 7.459 (95% CI: 2.665~20.878, p<0.001).


Our meta-analysis showed that the higher CXCR4 protein expression in prostate cancer specimens is significantly associated with the presence of metastatic disease. This supports previous experimental data supporting the role played by the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in metastasis.


Meta-analysis; Neoplasm metastasis; Prostatic neoplasms; Receptors, CXCR4

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