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Diabetes. 2015 Jun;64(6):2002-14. doi: 10.2337/db14-0704. Epub 2015 Jan 20.

A novel role for subcutaneous adipose tissue in exercise-induced improvements in glucose homeostasis.

Author information

1
Section on Integrative Physiology and Metabolism, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
2
Section on Integrative Physiology and Metabolism, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
3
Section on Integrative Physiology and Metabolism, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA laurie.goodyear@joslin.harvard.edu.

Abstract

Exercise training improves whole-body glucose homeostasis through effects largely attributed to adaptations in skeletal muscle; however, training also affects other tissues, including adipose tissue. To determine whether exercise-induced adaptations to adipose tissue contribute to training-induced improvements in glucose homeostasis, subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT) from exercise-trained or sedentary donor mice was transplanted into the visceral cavity of sedentary recipients. Remarkably, 9 days post-transplantation, mice receiving scWAT from exercise-trained mice had improved glucose tolerance and enhanced insulin sensitivity compared with mice transplanted with scWAT from sedentary or sham-treated mice. Mice transplanted with scWAT from exercise-trained mice had increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in tibialis anterior and soleus muscles and brown adipose tissue, suggesting that the transplanted scWAT exerted endocrine effects. Furthermore, the deleterious effects of high-fat feeding on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were completely reversed if high-fat-fed recipient mice were transplanted with scWAT from exercise-trained mice. In additional experiments, voluntary exercise training by wheel running for only 11 days resulted in profound changes in scWAT, including the increased expression of ∼1,550 genes involved in numerous cellular functions including metabolism. Exercise training causes adaptations to scWAT that elicit metabolic improvements in other tissues, demonstrating a previously unrecognized role for adipose tissue in the beneficial effects of exercise on systemic glucose homeostasis.

PMID:
25605808
PMCID:
PMC4439563
DOI:
10.2337/db14-0704
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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