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J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2015 Jan;19(1):126-37. doi: 10.1016/j.jbmt.2014.11.006. Epub 2014 Nov 13.

An evidence-informed review of the current myofascial pain literature--January 2015.

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Bethesda Physiocare, Bethesda, MD, USA; Myopain Seminars, Bethesda, MD, USA; PhysioFitness, Rockville, MD, USA. Electronic address:
Department of Allied Health Professions, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, University of the West of England, Blackberry Hill, Bristol, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
Bethesda Physiocare, Bethesda, MD, USA; Myopain Seminars, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:
Champion Sports Medicine in Birmingham, Alabama, USA. Electronic address:


This article provides an up-to-date review of the most recent publications about myofascial pain, trigger points (TrPs) and other related topics. We have added some commentaries where indicated with supporting references. In the Basic Research section, we reviewed the work by Danish researchers about the influence of latent TrPs and a second study of the presence and distribution of both active and latent TrPs in whiplash-associated disorders. The section on Soft Tissue Approaches considered multiple studies and case reports of the efficacy of myofascial release (MFR), classic and deep muscle massage, fascial techniques, and connective tissue massage. Dry needling (DN) is becoming a common approach and we included multiple studies, reviews, and case reports, while the section on Injection Techniques features an article on TrP injections following mastectomy and several articles about the utilization of botulinum toxin. Lastly, we review several articles on modalities and other clinical approaches.


Dry needling; Manual therapy; Myofascial pain syndrome; Trigger points

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