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Am J Public Health. 2015 Mar;105(3):530-7. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2014.302260. Epub 2015 Jan 20.

A minimal intervention to promote smoke-free homes among 2-1-1 callers: a randomized controlled trial.

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Michelle C. Kegler, Regine Haardörfer, Cam Escoffery, and Carla Berg are with the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education, Emory Prevention Research Center, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA. Lucja Bundy and Debbie Yembra are with the Emory Prevention Research Center, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta. Matthew Kreuter is with the George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University, St. Louis, MO. Mel Hovell is with the Center for Behavioral Epidemiology and Community Health, Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University, CA. Rebecca Williams is with the Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC. Patricia Dolan Mullen is with the School of Public Health, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, Houston. Kurt Ribisl is with the Department of Health Behavior, Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill. Donna Burnham is with the United Way of Greater Atlanta, GA.



We tested the efficacy of a minimal intervention to create smoke-free homes in low-income households recruited through the United Way of Greater Atlanta 2-1-1, an information and referral system that connects callers to local social services.


We conducted a randomized controlled trial (n=498) from June 2012 through June 2013, with follow-up at 3 and 6 months. The intervention consisted of 3 mailings and 1 coaching call.


Participants were mostly smokers (79.7%), women (82.7%), African American (83.3%), and not employed (76.5%), with an annual household income of $10,000 or less (55.6%). At 6-months postbaseline, significantly more intervention participants reported a full ban on smoking in the home than did control participants (40.0% vs 25.4%; P=.002). The intervention worked for smokers and nonsmokers, as well as those with or without children.


Minimal intervention was effective in promoting smoke-free homes in low income households and offers a potentially scalable model for protecting children and adult nonsmokers from secondhand smoke exposure in their homes.


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