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Spinal Cord. 2015 Jan 20. doi: 10.1038/sc.2014.227. [Epub ahead of print]

The efficiency of orthotic interventions on energy consumption in paraplegic patients: a literature review.

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Department of Orthotics and Prosthetics, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Science, Tehran, Iran.
Loghman Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Department of Neurosurgery, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Salford, Salford, UK.



This is a systematic literature review.


Different types of orthoses have been developed to enable and facilitate ambulation in individuals with paraplegia. However, their effect on energy consumption while ambulating is not clear. The objective of this review was to compare the energy expenditure required to walk with these devices.


Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) method, and based on selected keywords and their composition according to the Population Intervention Comparison Outcome (PICO) method, a search was performed in Science Direct, Google Scholar, Scopus, Web of Knowledge and PubMed databases. The searches were restricted to papers published in the English language and were conducted during February 2014; the last access to the database was on 25 February 2014. A total of 24 articles were chosen for final evaluation.


Hybrid orthoses reduce energy consumption compared with mechanical orthoses when used for walking by paraplegic patients. The isocentric reciprocating gait orthosis has been shown to be more effective than other reciprocating orthoses in reducing energy consumption. Energy consumption when walking with powered orthoses (PO) and hybrid orthoses was also reduced compared with when walking with conventional orthoses.


The hybrid orthoses and PO could be effective alternatives in rehabilitation for spinal cord injury patients to help improve the energy consumption.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 20 January 2015; doi:10.1038/sc.2014.227.


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