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Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2015 Apr;31:244-9. doi: 10.1016/j.conb.2015.01.003. Epub 2015 Jan 17.

The intrinsic operation of the networks that make us locomote.

Author information

1
Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: sten.grillner@ki.se.
2
Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: abdel.elmanira@ki.se.

Abstract

The spinal cord of all vertebrates contains the networks that coordinate the locomotor movements. In lamprey, zebrafish and amphibian tadpoles these networks generate the swimming movements and depend primarily on ipsilateral excitatory premotor interneurons of the V2a type (zebrafish) generate the segmental burst pattern. In zebrafish they can be further subdivided into three subclasses activating slow, intermediate and fast muscle fibers. Inhibitory commissural neurons are responsible for the alternating pattern between the two sides of the body. Stretch receptor neurons sense the movements and provide sensory feedback. In mammals the locomotor pattern in each limb comprises four different phases including flexor-extensor alternation. Also in this case local ipsilateral excitatory V2 interneurons can drive rhythmic burst activity in individual muscle groups. The coordination between the two hind limbs appears to be controlled by separate sets of commissural interneurons (V0) most likely engaged in walk, trot and gallop respectively.

PMID:
25599926
DOI:
10.1016/j.conb.2015.01.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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