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Nat Genet. 2015 Mar;47(3):242-9. doi: 10.1038/ng.3195. Epub 2015 Jan 19.

Evolutionary history and global spread of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage.

Author information

1
Molecular Mycobacteriology, Research Center Borstel, Borstel, Germany.
2
1] Laboratoire Biologie Intégrative des Population, Evolution Moléculaire, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Paris, France. [2] Institut de Systématique, Evolution, Biodiversité, UMR-CNRS 7205, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Sorbonne Universités, Paris, France.
3
Université Joseph Fourier, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Laboratoire Techniques de l'Ingénierie Médicale et de la Complexité-Informatique, Mathématiques et Applications, Grenoble, France.
4
1] INSERM U1019, Center for Infection and Immunity of Lille, Lille, France. [2] Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 8204, Lille, France. [3] Université Lille Nord, Center for Infection and Immunity of Lille, Lille, France. [4] Institut Pasteur de Lille, Center for Infection and Immunity of Lille, Lille, France.
5
National Reference Center for Mycobacteria, Research Center Borstel, Borstel, Germany.
6
Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, St. Petersburg Pasteur Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia.
7
Centre for Biomedical Research, Burnet Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
8
Genoscreen, Lille, France.
9
Medical Department, Médecins sans Frontières Switzerland, Geneva, Switzerland.
10
Department of Microbiology, National Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases Research Institute, Warsaw, Poland.
11
Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
12
Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Molecular Epidemiology Unit-Tuberculosis, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.
13
Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland.
14
Tuberculosis Research Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
15
Clinical Research Department, Epicentre, Paris, France.
16
Emerging Bacterial Pathogens Unit, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.
17
Department of Microbiology, Hospital Universitario de Gran Canaria Dr. Negrín, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain.
18
Division of Medical Microbiology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
19
1] Centre for Biomedical Research, Burnet Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. [2] Department of Infectious Diseases, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. [3] Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
20
National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, Phthysiopneumology Institute, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova.
21
Institute for Epidemiology, Schleswig-Holstein University Hospital, Kiel, Germany.
22
1] Public Health England National Mycobacterial Reference Laboratory and Clinical Tuberculosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Group, Queen Mary's School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK. [2] Department of Infectious Diseases, Imperial College, London, UK.
23
Tuberculosis and Mycobacteria, Scientific Institute of Public Health, Brussels, Belgium.
24
Department of Microbiology, Public Health Agency of Sweden, Solna, Sweden.
25
Department of Science and Technology/National Research Foundation, Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research/Medical Research Council, Centre for Tuberculosis Research, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.
26
Department of Diagnostics and Vaccinology, Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control, Solna, Sweden.
27
Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children and National Key Discipline of Pediatrics (Capital Medical University), Ministry of Education, Beijing Pediatric Research Institute, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.
28
US Agency for International Development Quality Health Care Project, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.
29
Samara Oblast Tuberculosis Service, Samara, Russia.
30
Statens Serum Institute, International Reference Laboratory of Mycobacteriology, Copenhagen, Denmark.
31
Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association, Tokyo, Japan.
32
World Health Organization Supranational Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, Institut Pasteur de la Guadeloupe, Abymes, France.
33
Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Aragón, Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, Zaragoza, Spain.
34
Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.
35
Central Tuberculosis Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore.
36
Department of Immunology and Cell Biology, Institute of Biotechnology, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania.
37
Tartu University Hospital United Laboratories, Mycobacteriology, Tartu, Estonia.
38
Medical Department, Médecins sans Frontières, Paris, France.
39
1] INSERM U1019, Center for Infection and Immunity of Lille, Lille, France. [2] Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 8204, Lille, France. [3] Université Lille Nord, Center for Infection and Immunity of Lille, Lille, France. [4] Institut Pasteur de Lille, Center for Infection and Immunity of Lille, Lille, France. [5] Genoscreen, Lille, France.
40
1] Molecular Mycobacteriology, Research Center Borstel, Borstel, Germany. [2] German Center for Infection Research, Borstel Site, Borstel, Germany.

Abstract

Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of the Beijing lineage are globally distributed and are associated with the massive spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis in Eurasia. Here we reconstructed the biogeographical structure and evolutionary history of this lineage by genetic analysis of 4,987 isolates from 99 countries and whole-genome sequencing of 110 representative isolates. We show that this lineage initially originated in the Far East, from where it radiated worldwide in several waves. We detected successive increases in population size for this pathogen over the last 200 years, practically coinciding with the Industrial Revolution, the First World War and HIV epidemics. Two MDR clones of this lineage started to spread throughout central Asia and Russia concomitantly with the collapse of the public health system in the former Soviet Union. Mutations identified in genes putatively under positive selection and associated with virulence might have favored the expansion of the most successful branches of the lineage.

PMID:
25599400
DOI:
10.1038/ng.3195
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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