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Future Microbiol. 2015;10(1):53-67. doi: 10.2217/fmb.14.102.

Noroviruses: epidemiology, immunity and prospects for prevention.

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Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization & Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Mailstop A-34, Atlanta, GA, 30333, USA.


In recent years, noroviruses have become recognized as an important cause of both sporadic and epidemic acute gastroenteritis (AGE), largely due to the improved availability of broadly reactive real-time RT-PCR (TaqMan-based RT-PCR) assays. While there is substantial diversity among noroviruses, one specific genotype, GII.4, is the most common etiology in sporadic and epidemic AGE. Outbreaks of norovirus AGE most commonly occur in healthcare facilities and restaurants and result in significant morbidity and mortality and substantial healthcare costs. Norovirus vaccine development is progressing, and Phase I and II human trials have shown proof-of-principle that norovirus vaccines can reduce illness and infection.


Caliciviridae; GII.4; herd immunity; norovirus; vaccine

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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