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J Biomater Sci Polym Ed. 2015;26(5):322-37. doi: 10.1080/09205063.2015.1008882. Epub 2015 Feb 9.

Dual growth factor-immobilized microspheres for tissue reinnervation: in vitro and preliminary in vivo studies.

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a Department of Advanced Materials , Hannam University , Daejeon 305-811 , Republic of Korea.


Growth factors (GFs) (basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and/or nerve growth factor (NGF))-immobilized polycaprolactone (PCL)/Pluronic F127 microspheres were prepared using an isolated particulate-melting method and the sequential binding of heparin and GFs onto the microspheres. The GFs immobilized on the microspheres were released in a sustained manner over 28 days, regardless of GF type. From the in vitro culture of muscle-derived stem cells, it was observed that the NGF-immobilized microspheres induced more neurogenic differentiation than the bFGF-immobilized microspheres, as evidenced by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using specific neurogenic markers (Nestin, GFAP, β-tubulin, and MAP2) and Western blot (Nestin and β-tubulin) analyses. The dual bFGF/NGF-immobilized microspheres showed better neurogenic differentiation than the microspheres immobilized with single bFGF or NGF. From the preliminary animal study, the dual bFGF/NGF-immobilized microsphere group also showed effective nerve regeneration, as evaluated by immunocytochemistry using a marker - β-tubulin. The dual bFGF/NGF-immobilized PCL/Pluronic F127 microspheres may be a promising candidate for nerve regeneration in certain target tissues (i.e. muscles) leading to sufficient reinnervation.


basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF); microsphere; nerve growth factor (NGF); nerve regeneration; neurogenic differentiation

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