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Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2015;129:253-84. doi: 10.1016/bs.pmbts.2014.10.009. Epub 2014 Dec 1.

The cytoplasmic tail of retroviral envelope glycoproteins.

Author information

1
Virus-Cell Interaction Section, HIV Drug Resistance Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland, USA.
2
Virus-Cell Interaction Section, HIV Drug Resistance Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland, USA. Electronic address: efreed@nih.gov.

Abstract

Retroviruses comprise a large, diverse group that infects a broad range of host organisms. Pathogenicity varies widely; the human immunodeficiency virus is the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, one of the world's leading infectious causes of death, while many nonhuman retroviruses cause cancer in the host. Retroviruses have been studied intensively, and great strides have been made in understanding aspects of retroviral biology. While the principal functions of the viral structural proteins are well understood, there remain many incompletely characterized domains. One of these is the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of the envelope glycoprotein. Several functions of the CT are highly conserved, whereas other properties are unique to a specific retrovirus. For example, the lentiviruses encode envelope glycoproteins with particularly large cytoplasmic domains. The functions of the long lentiviral envelope CT are still being deciphered. The reported functions of retroviral envelope CTs are discussed in this chapter.

KEYWORDS:

Cytoplasmic tail; Envelope; HIV; Lentivirus; MLV; Membrane fusion; Retrovirus; Signaling; Trafficking; Virus assembly

PMID:
25595807
DOI:
10.1016/bs.pmbts.2014.10.009
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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