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IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2015 Aug;34(8):1738-46. doi: 10.1109/TMI.2015.2391200. Epub 2015 Jan 13.

Spinal Navigation and Imaging: History, Trends, and Future.


The clinical practice of spine navigation has rapidly grown with the development of image-based guidance. In this paper, a brief history of spinal navigation is presented and a review of clinical outcomes for 12,622 pedicle screws placed using the latest technology in the sacral, lumbar and thoracic regions. The clinical evidence demonstrate that intraoperative 3D image guided surgery has a 96.8% success rate. A concluding section detailing existing barriers that limit more widespread adoption and future development efforts is presented.

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