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Sci Rep. 2015 Jan 15;5:7632. doi: 10.1038/srep07632.

Genetic diversity of avian influenza A (H10N8) virus in live poultry markets and its association with human infections in China.

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Nanchang Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanchang, China, 330038.
National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Key Laboratory for Medical Virology, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Beijing, China, 102206.
Jiangxi Provincial Disease Control and Prevention, Nanchang, China, 330029.
Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China, 102206.
Donghu District Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanchang, China, 330008.
Jiangxi Provincial people's Hospital, Nanchang, China, 330006.
The first affiliated hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China, 330008.
The fourth affiliated hospital of Nanchang University, China, 330006.


Following the first human infection with the influenza A (H10N8) virus in Nanchang, China in December 2013, we identified two additional patients on January 19 and February 9, 2014. The epidemiologic, clinical, and virological data from the patients and the environmental specimen collected from 23 local live poultry markets (LPMs) were analyzed. The three H10N8 cases had a history of poultry exposure and presented with high fever (>38°C), rapidly progressive pneumonia and lymphopenia. Substantial high levels of cytokines and chemokines were observed. The sequences from an isolate (A/Environment/Jiangxi/03489/2013 [H10N8]) in an epidemiologically linked LPM showed highly identity with human H10N8 virus, evidencing LPM as the source of human infection. The HA and NA of human and environmental H10N8 isolates showed high identity (99.1-99.9%) while six genotypes with internal genes derived from H9N2, H7N3 and H7N9 subtype viruses were detected in environmental H10N8 isolates. The genotype of the virus causing human infection, Jiangxi/346, possessed a whole internal gene set of the A/Environment/Jiangxi/10618/2014(H9N2)-like virus. Thus, our findings support the notion that LPMs can act as both a gene pool for the generation of novel reassortants and a source for human infection, and intensive surveillance and management should therefore be conducted.

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