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Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015 Jan;39(1):441-6. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2014.11.015. Epub 2014 Dec 3.

Detoxification of chlorella supplement on heterocyclic amines in Korean young adults.

Author information

1
Research Center for Cell Fate Control, College of Pharmacy, Sookmyoung Women's University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
2
Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Tampa, FL, USA.
3
Agilent Technologies, Wilmington, DE, USA.
4
Health Food Division, R&D center, Daesang Corp., Icheon-City, Gyeonggi-Do, Republic of Korea.
5
Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA.
6
Research Center for Cell Fate Control, College of Pharmacy, Sookmyoung Women's University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: myang@sm.ac.kr.

Abstract

Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been established as carcinogenic chemicals in Western diet. This study was performed to estimate HCA exposure levels in Korean daily life and to assess the ability of Chlorella vulgaris to detoxify carcinogenic HCAs in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled crossover study with chlorella supplement (N=6, all females, age: 27.17±7.73yr) for 2 weeks. We analyzed HCAs in hydrolyzed urine specimens using LC/TOF-MS. As results, urinary levels of MeIQx, PhIP, and IQx-8-COOH were 323.36±220.11ng/L, 351.59±254.93ng/L, and 130.85±83.22ng/L, respectively. Effects of chlorella to reduce urinary MeIQx were marginally significant (before, 430±226.86pg/mL vs. after, 174.45±101.65pg/mL: 0.05<p<0.1). However, urinary levels of PhIP or IQx-8-COOH, a major metabolite of MeIQx, were not changed by chlorella supplementation. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that current daily levels of HCA exposure in Korean young adults are not lower than those in the Western world. In addition, the effects of chlorella's to detoxify HCAs likely occur by interfering e with absorption or metabolism.

KEYWORDS:

Chemoprevention; Chlorella; Heterocyclic amines; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Urine

PMID:
25590673
DOI:
10.1016/j.etap.2014.11.015
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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