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Lancet Oncol. 2015 Feb;16(2):141-51. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(14)71173-8. Epub 2015 Jan 12.

Afatinib versus cisplatin-based chemotherapy for EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma (LUX-Lung 3 and LUX-Lung 6): analysis of overall survival data from two randomised, phase 3 trials.

Author information

1
National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address: chihyang@ntu.edu.tw.
2
Guangdong Lung Cancer Institute, Guangdong General Hospital and Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China.
3
West German Cancer Center, University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.
4
Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Medical Center, Frankfurt am Main, and University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.
5
Royal Marsden Hospital, London, UK.
6
Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan.
7
Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.
8
Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.
9
Princess Alexandra Hospital and Queensland University of Technology, Australia.
10
Jiangsu Province Cancer Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.
11
Shanghai Lung Tumor Clinical Medical Center, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
12
Yunnan Tumor Hospital (The Third Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University), Kunming, Yunnan Province, China.
13
Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand.
14
Department of Internal Medicine, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea.
15
Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
16
FSBI "N N Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Centre", Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, Russia.
17
McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
18
Institut de Cancérologie de l'Ouest-site René Gauducheau, Nantes, France.
19
Pavlov State Medical University, St Petersburg, Russia.
20
State Key Laboratory of South China, Hong Kong Cancer Institute, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
21
Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia.
22
National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan.
23
Chungbuk National University Hospital, Cheongju, South Korea.
24
Kanagawa Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, Yokohama, Japan.
25
Boehringer Ingelheim Ltd UK, Bracknell, Berkshire, UK.
26
Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

We aimed to assess the effect of afatinib on overall survival of patients with EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma through an analysis of data from two open-label, randomised, phase 3 trials.

METHODS:

Previously untreated patients with EGFR mutation-positive stage IIIB or IV lung adenocarcinoma were enrolled in LUX-Lung 3 (n=345) and LUX-Lung 6 (n=364). These patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive afatinib or chemotherapy (pemetrexed-cisplatin [LUX-Lung 3] or gemcitabine-cisplatin [LUX-Lung 6]), stratified by EGFR mutation (exon 19 deletion [del19], Leu858Arg, or other) and ethnic origin (LUX-Lung 3 only). We planned analyses of mature overall survival data in the intention-to-treat population after 209 (LUX-Lung 3) and 237 (LUX-Lung 6) deaths. These ongoing studies are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT00949650 and NCT01121393.

FINDINGS:

Median follow-up in LUX-Lung 3 was 41 months (IQR 35-44); 213 (62%) of 345 patients had died. Median follow-up in LUX-Lung 6 was 33 months (IQR 31-37); 246 (68%) of 364 patients had died. In LUX-Lung 3, median overall survival was 28.2 months (95% CI 24.6-33.6) in the afatinib group and 28.2 months (20.7-33.2) in the pemetrexed-cisplatin group (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.66-1.17, p=0.39). In LUX-Lung 6, median overall survival was 23.1 months (95% CI 20.4-27.3) in the afatinib group and 23.5 months (18.0-25.6) in the gemcitabine-cisplatin group (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.72-1.22, p=0.61). However, in preplanned analyses, overall survival was significantly longer for patients with del19-positive tumours in the afatinib group than in the chemotherapy group in both trials: in LUX-Lung 3, median overall survival was 33.3 months (95% CI 26.8-41.5) in the afatinib group versus 21.1 months (16.3-30.7) in the chemotherapy group (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.36-0.79, p=0.0015); in LUX-Lung 6, it was 31.4 months (95% CI 24.2-35.3) versus 18.4 months (14.6-25.6), respectively (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44-0.94, p=0.023). By contrast, there were no significant differences by treatment group for patients with EGFR Leu858Arg-positive tumours in either trial: in LUX-Lung 3, median overall survival was 27.6 months (19.8-41.7) in the afatinib group versus 40.3 months (24.3-not estimable) in the chemotherapy group (HR 1.30, 95% CI 0.80-2.11, p=0.29); in LUX-Lung 6, it was 19.6 months (95% CI 17.0-22.1) versus 24.3 months (19.0-27.0), respectively (HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.81-1.83, p=0.34). In both trials, the most common afatinib-related grade 3-4 adverse events were rash or acne (37 [16%] of 229 patients in LUX-Lung 3 and 35 [15%] of 239 patients in LUX-Lung 6), diarrhoea (33 [14%] and 13 [5%]), paronychia (26 [11%] in LUX-Lung 3 only), and stomatitis or mucositis (13 [5%] in LUX-Lung 6 only). In LUX-Lung 3, neutropenia (20 [18%] of 111 patients), fatigue (14 [13%]) and leucopenia (nine [8%]) were the most common chemotherapy-related grade 3-4 adverse events, while in LUX-Lung 6, the most common chemotherapy-related grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (30 [27%] of 113 patients), vomiting (22 [19%]), and leucopenia (17 [15%]).

INTERPRETATION:

Although afatinib did not improve overall survival in the whole population of either trial, overall survival was improved with the drug for patients with del19 EGFR mutations. The absence of an effect in patients with Leu858Arg EGFR mutations suggests that EGFR del19-positive disease might be distinct from Leu858Arg-positive disease and that these subgroups should be analysed separately in future trials.

FUNDING:

Boehringer Ingelheim.

PMID:
25589191
DOI:
10.1016/S1470-2045(14)71173-8
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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