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Nutrients. 2015 Jan 9;7(1):443-80. doi: 10.3390/nu7010443.

Regulation of calcitriol biosynthesis and activity: focus on gestational vitamin D deficiency and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Author information

1
Department of Reproductive Biology, National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubirán, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000, Mexico City, Mexico. nut.aolmos@gmail.com.
2
Department of Reproductive Biology, National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubirán, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000, Mexico City, Mexico. euclides.avilac@incmnsz.mx.
3
Department of Reproductive Biology, National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubirán, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000, Mexico City, Mexico. mdurand65@gmail.com.
4
Department of Reproductive Biology, National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubirán, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000, Mexico City, Mexico. lorenzadiaz@gmail.com.

Abstract

Vitamin D has garnered a great deal of attention in recent years due to a global prevalence of vitamin D deficiency associated with an increased risk of a variety of human diseases. Specifically, hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women is highly common and has important implications for the mother and lifelong health of the child, since it has been linked to maternal and child infections, small-for-gestational age, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, as well as imprinting on the infant for life chronic diseases. Therefore, factors that regulate vitamin D metabolism are of main importance, especially during pregnancy. The hormonal form and most active metabolite of vitamin D is calcitriol. This hormone mediates its biological effects through a specific nuclear receptor, which is found in many tissues including the placenta. Calcitriol synthesis and degradation depend on the expression and activity of CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 cytochromes, respectively, for which regulation is tissue specific. Among the factors that modify these cytochromes expression and/or activity are calcitriol itself, parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23, cytokines, calcium and phosphate. This review provides a current overview on the regulation of vitamin D metabolism, focusing on vitamin D deficiency during gestation and its impact on pregnancy outcomes.

PMID:
25584965
PMCID:
PMC4303849
DOI:
10.3390/nu7010443
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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