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Mol Endocrinol. 2015 Feb;29(2):307-21. doi: 10.1210/me.2014-1129. Epub 2015 Jan 13.

Actions of the small molecule ligands SW106 and AH-3960 on the type-1 parathyroid hormone receptor.

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Endocrine Unit (T.D., A.K., T.J.G.), Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02492; Department of Photomedicine (B.B.), Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02492; CreaGen Biosciences, Inc (R.R.), Woburn, Massachusetts 01801; and Bristol-Myers Squibb Co (P.H.C.), Princeton, New Jersey 08543.


The parathyroid hormone receptor-1 (PTHR1) plays critical roles in regulating blood calcium levels and bone metabolism and is thus of interest for small-molecule ligand development. Of the few small-molecule ligands reported for the PTHR1, most are of low affinity, and none has a well-defined mechanism of action. Here, we show that SW106 and AH-3960, compounds previously identified to act as an antagonist and agonist, respectively, on the PTHR1, each bind to PTHR1-delNT, a PTHR1 construct that lacks the large amino-terminal extracellular domain used for binding endogenous PTH peptide ligands, with the same micromolar affinity with which it binds to the intact PTHR1. SW106 antagonized PTHR1-mediated cAMP signaling induced by the peptide analog, M-PTH(1-11), as well as by the native PTH(1-9) sequence, as tethered to the extracellular end of transmembrane domain (TMD) helix-1 of the receptor. SW106, however, did not function as an inverse agonist on either PTHR1-H223R or PTHR1-T410P, which have activating mutations at the cytoplasmic ends of TMD helices 2 and 6, respectively. The overall data indicate that SW106 and AH-3960 each bind to the PTHR1 TMD region and likely to within an extracellularly exposed area that is occupied by the N-terminal residues of PTH peptides. Additionally, they suggest that the inhibitory effects of SW106 are limited to the extracellular portions of the TMD region that mediate interactions with agonist ligands but do not extend to receptor-activation determinants situated more deeply in the helical bundle. The study helps to elucidate potential mechanisms of small-molecule binding at the PTHR1.

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