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J Clin Diagn Res. 2014 Nov;8(11):ZC60-3. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2014/10359.5144. Epub 2014 Nov 20.

An in Vitro Evaluation of Antimicrobial Efficacy of 2% Chlorhexidine Gel, Propolis and Calcium Hydroxide Against Enterococcus faecalis in Human Root Dentin.

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Senior Lecturer, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, YCMM and Rdf's Dental College and Hospital , Ahamednagar, India .
Associate Professor, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, JSS Dental College and Hospital, JSS University , Mysore, india .
Reader, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, MMNGHIDS , Bauxite Road, Belgaum, India .



To evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial efficacy of 2% Chlorhexidine gel, Propolis and Calcium hydroxide against Enterococcus faecalis in human root dentin.


One hundred and twenty human extracted anterior teeth were decoronated below CEJ and the apical part of root was removed to obtain 6mm of middle of the root. GG no 3 was used to standardize the internal diameter of root canal. Dentin blocks were infected with E faecalis for 21 d. They were assigned into four groups (n = 30).Group 1, Saline (negative control); Group 2, Propolis; Group 3, 2% CHX; Group 4, Calcium hydroxide, At the end of 1, 3, and 5 days an assessment of microbial cells was carried out at a depth of 400 μm and colony counts were calculated.The data were analysed statistically with one-way analysis of variance followed by Scheffe multiple comparison test (p < 0.05).


The number of colony-forming units was significantly lower in all experimental groups compared to the control group - Saline. 2% Chlorhexidinegluconate produced better antimicrobial efficacy (100%) on day 1, 3 and 5. Propolis (66.37%) had greater antimicrobial activity than Calcium hydroxide (50.89%) on day 1 but there was no significant difference in their antimicrobial activities on day 3 and day 5.


2% Chlorhexidine gel showed the maximum antimicrobial activity against E faecalis and Calcium hydroxide the least. Propolis can be used as an effective alternative intracanal medicament.


Colony-forming units; Culture; E faecalis; Intracanal medicament

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